Links Urban Governance Students destined for careers in city management, urban planning, or economic development may want to pursue this concentration concerned with urban government. The Urban Governance concentration offers these courses:
Squalor can be seen in the streets, wash clothes hanging between buildings. Published in Life and Labour of the People in London. The red areas are "middle class, well-to-do", light blue areas are "poor, 18s to 21s a week for a moderate family", dark blue areas are "very poor, casual, chronic want", and black areas are the "lowest class Slums were common in the United States and Europe before the early 20th century.
London's East End is generally considered the locale where the term originated in the 19th century, where massive and rapid urbanisation of the dockside and industrial areas led to intensive overcrowding in a warren of post-medieval streetscape.
The suffering of the poor was described in popular fiction by moralist authors such as Charles Dickens — most famously Oliver Twist and echoed the Christian Socialist values of the time, which soon found legal expression in the Public Health Act of As the slum clearance movement gathered pace, deprived areas such as Old Nichol were fictionalised to raise awareness in the middle classes in the form of moralist novels such as A Child of the Jago resulting in slum clearance and reconstruction programmes such as the exemplary Boundary Estate and the creation of charitable trusts such as the Peabody Trust founded in and Joseph Rowntree Foundation which still operate to provide decent housing today.
Slums are often associated with Victorian Britainparticularly in industrial English towns, lowland Urban governance towns and Dublin City in Ireland. Engels described these British neighborhoods as "cattle-sheds for human beings".
In Europe, slums were common. A footnote defined slum to mean "low, unfrequent parts of the town". Charles Dickens used the word slum in a similar way inwriting "I mean to take a great, London, back-slum kind walk tonight". Slum began to be used to describe bad housing soon after and was used as alternative expression for rookeries.
Close under the Abbey of Westminster there lie concealed labyrinths of lanes and potty and alleys and slums, nests of ignorance, vice, depravity, and crime, as well as of squalor, wretchedness, and disease; whose atmosphere is typhus, whose ventilation is cholera; in which swarms of huge and almost countless population, nominally at least, Catholic; haunts of filth, which no sewage committee can reach — dark corners, which no lighting board can brighten.
This demographic and economic trend rapidly raised rents of existing housing as well as expanded slums.
French government passed laws to block increase in the rent of housing, which inadvertently made many housing projects unprofitable and increased slums. New York City is believed to have created America's first slum, named the Five Points inas it evolved into a large urban settlement.
Trash piled up as well and by the early s the lake was filled up and dry. On this foundation was built Five Points, the United States' first slum. Five Points was occupied by successive waves of freed slaves, Irish, then Italian, then Chinese, immigrants.
It housed the poor, rural people leaving farms for opportunity, and the persecuted people from Europe pouring into New York City. Bars, bordellos, squalid and lightless tenements lined its streets. Violence and crime were commonplace.
Politicians and social elite discussed it with derision. Slums like Five Points triggered discussions of affordable housing and slum removal. As of the start of the 21st century, Five Points slum had been transformed into the Little Italy and Chinatown neighborhoods of New York City, through that city's campaign of massive urban renewal.
Slums were found in every major urban region of the United States throughout most of the 20th century, long after the Great Depression. Most of these slums had been ignored by the cities and states which encompassed them until the s' War on Poverty was undertaken by the Federal government of the United States.
A type of slum housing, sometimes called poorhouses, crowded the Boston Commons, later at the fringes of the city. Slums were scattered around Paris through the s.
Byin various cities and towns of Latin America alone, there were about 25, slums. Common causes include rapid rural-to-urban migration, poor planning, economic stagnation and depression, poverty, high unemployment, informal economy, colonialism and segregation, politics, natural disasters and social conflicts.
Kibera slum in NairobiKenyathe second largest slum in Africa    and third largest in the world. Some rural—urban migrant workers cannot afford housing in cities and eventually settle down in only affordable slums. They thus expand the existing urban slums.
In addition to migration for jobs, a portion of people migrate to cities because of their connection with relatives or families. Once their family support in urban areas is in slums, those rural migrants intend to live with them in slums  Urbanization[ edit ] A slum in Rio de JaneiroBrazil.
Rocinha favela is next to skyscrapers and wealthier parts of the city, a location that provides jobs and easy commute to those who live in the slums. The formation of slums is closely linked to urbanization. In the early s, many African governments believed that slums would finally disappear with economic growth in urban areas.Magellan of Virginia provides behavioral health services to individuals enrolled in Virginia's Medicaid and FAMIS programs.
Find information for members, their families and healthcare providers. Futuristic control rooms with endless screens of blinking data are proliferating in cities across the globe. Welcome to the age of Dashboard Governance.
Demographics & Urban Policy. LAND USE POLICY & HOUSING AFFORDABILITY Annual Demographia Int'l Housing Affordability Survey Research Summary: Smart Growth & Housing Costs.
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Reigning theories of urban power suggest that in a world dominated by footloose transnational capital.