Supporting Industries The individual points on the diamond and the diamond as a whole affect four ingredients that lead to a national comparative advantage. The points of the diamond are described as follows.
History of children in the military History is filled with children who have been trained and used for combat, assigned to support roles such as porters or messengers, used as sex slaves, or recruited for tactical advantage as human shields or for political advantage in propaganda.
In the United Nations identified 14 countries where children were widely used by such groups: Singer of the Brookings Institution estimated that child soldiers participate in about three-quarters of ongoing conflicts. Peter Singer has suggested that the global proliferation of light automatic weapons, which children can easily handle, has made the use of children as direct combatants more viable.
In a study of children in military organisations around the world, Rachel Brett and Irma Specht pointed to a complex of factors that incentivise enlisting, particularly: Background poverty including a lack of civilian education or employment opportunities The cultural normalisation of war Seeking new friends Revenge for example, after seeing friends and relatives killed Expectations that a "warrior" role provides a rite of passage to maturity  The following testimony from a child recruited by the Cambodian armed forces in the s is typical of many children's motivations for joining up: I joined because my parents lacked food and I had no school I was worried about mines but what can we do—it's an order [to go to the front line ].
Once somebody stepped on a mine in front of me—he was wounded and died I was with the radio at the time, about 60 metres away.
I was sitting in my hammock and saw him die I see young children in every unit I'm sure I'll be a soldier for at least a couple of more years.
If I stop being a soldier I won't have a job to do because I don't have any skills. I don't know what I'll do Lawyers and relatives are frequently banned from any court hearing.
Military academics in the US have characterised military training at all ages as "intense indoctrination" in conditions of sustained stress, the primary purpose of which is to establish the unconditional and immediate obedience of recruits.
Military settings are also characterised by elevated rates of bullying and sexual harassment. Specifically, evidence from Germany,  the UK    and the US    has shown that recruiters disproportionately target children from poorer backgrounds using marketing that omits the risks and restrictions of military life.
Some academics have argued that marketing of this kind capitalises on the psychological susceptibility in mid-adolescence to emotionally-driven decision-making.
Convention on the Rights of the Child and Free Children from War conference The Convention on the Rights of the Child defines a child as any person under the age of The Paris Principles define a child associated with an armed force or group as: The document is approved by the United Nations General Assembly.
It does not only refer to a child who is taking or has taken a direct part in hostilities. This is now recognised as a war crime. In addition, OPAC forbids non-state armed groups from recruiting children under any circumstances, although the legal force of this is uncertain.
Most African states have ratified the Charter. In recruiting among those persons who have attained the age of fifteen years but who have not attained the age of eighteen years, the Parties to the conflict shall endeavor to give priority to those who are oldest. The International Committee of the Red Cross had proposed that the Parties to the conflict should "take all necessary measures", which became in the final text, "take all feasible measures", which is not a total prohibition because feasible is understood as meaning "capable of being done, accomplished or carried out, possible or practicable".
Rehabilitation and reintegration of child soldiers OPAC requires governments to demobilise children within their jurisdiction who have been recruited or used in hostilities and to provide assistance for their physical and psychological recovery and social reintegration.
To accommodate the proper disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration of former members of armed groups, the United Nations started the Integrated DDR Standards in War crime Opinion is currently divided over whether children should be prosecuted for war crimes.• Denmark • Singapore • Switzerland Background (Cont.) Porter’s Diamond Model Michael Porter postulated that determinants of competitive advantage of a nation were based on four Porter’s Diamond Model (Cont.) Criticism Government can influence on any four components of the diamond.
A very well-known framework is the Porter’s Diamond which was found by Michael Porter in This report will discuss the advantages and disadvantages to determine a company’s home and host location decision by analysing two high street retailers – French lausannecongress2018.comc and UK’s Sainsbury’s.
Download Citation on ResearchGate | COMPETITIVENESS OF THE INDUSTRIES BASED ON THE PORTER'S DIAMOND MODEL: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY | Michael Porter offered a model that allows examining why some states. The porter diamond is a model that attempts to explain the competitive advantage some nations or groups have due to certain factors available to them.
This essay will look at Rugman and Collinson's criticisms of Porter's model, focussing on three major areas: the role of FDI, foreign government influence and Multi National Enterprises (MNEs), before looking at developments to Porters diamond with country specific examples. 52 The Journal of Global Business Management Volume 9 * Number 3 * October issue Analyze the Hotel Industry in Porter Five Competitive Forces Dr.
David S. Y.
Cheng, Faculty (Business) Upper Iowa University – Hong Kong Campus.