As a result, social democracy became associated with Keynesian economicsstate interventionism and the welfare state, while abandoning the prior goal of replacing the capitalist system factor markets, private property and wage labour  with a qualitatively different socialist economic system. Fascism supports a state interventionism into markets and private enterprise, alongside a corporatist framework referred to as the " third position " that ostensibly aims to be a middle-ground between socialism and capitalism by mediating labour and business disputes to promote national unity. Scholars have drawn parallels between the American New Deal and public works programs promoted by fascism, arguing that fascism similarly arose in response to the threat of socialist revolution and similarly aimed to "save capitalism" and private property.
Household composition A common trend in the SATs is that the traditionally-preferred extended family unit, consisting of more than one married man plus dependents, is breaking up into nuclear or simple units of one married man plus dependents.
The underlying reasons revolve around increased contact with the outside world and monetization of the economy. The rate at which this change is taking place depends on several complex interactions. The introduction of cash crops, secular education, increased off-farm employment opportunities, new settlements, and migration may encourage this breakup, although the speed at which it takes place may be tempered by the strength of the traditional hierarchical structure, the ethnic origin of the people concerned, the ownership of cattle and other factors.
Implications of such a trend in West Africa are: Fields farmed by a household are traditionally divided into common and individual fields. The common fields, controlled by the head of the household, provided food for all members of the household.
An increasing proportion of the fields are coming under the control of other individuals in the household. The obligation of household members to work the common fields is decreasing, and the assurance of food from the household farm to meet subsistence needs no longer exists.
Increased individualization of fields and the need for cash to pay taxes have both encouraged the growth of market crops Decisions are increasingly made by individuals within sub-households rather than by the extended-household head.
This creates problems in introducing improved technology, especially if an extension or institutional credit programme is involved, because such programmes tend to be directed at household heads. In many areas, the break-up of families is resulting in smaller farms, increased fragmentation of fields and younger, less-experienced household heads.
Dependant-per-worker ratios are commonly increasing, giving poorer net worth and cash liquidity levels. Such trends raise questions about the appropriateness of the use of certain types of technology, for example oxen and the question of cattle ownership.
Poorer liquidity and net worth are likely to make the purchase of cattle more difficult, and ownership could entail management by herders because of labour limitations.
Where senior males are linked with such households, they spend much of their time at the cattle posts, which are generally distant from the cropping areas or, more recently, increasingly work full-time in towns Heinrich et al. Such trends also occur on desert fringes, for example in the Sindh, Pakistan, and in Rajasthan, India.
The break-up of the extended family increases the vulnerability of individuals to droughts or other adverse setbacks to the farming system. Total labour inputs Farm work in the SATs revolves around crops, livestock, and off- farm enterprises. In Asia, in contrast, land has been relatively scarce in the SATs for at least a generation, so farm size tends to be determined by land availability rather than seasonal labour peaks.
The major labour input on the household farm tends to be provided by household members.
Reciprocal and communal labour have slowly given way to a significant level of contract and wage labour. The total annual work done by household members often appears to be rather small mainly because of seasonally of cropping.
Typically, the coefficient of variation for monthly labour inputs increases as one moves into the drier parts of the SATs. Seasonality Although the allocation of labour to crops is particularly seasonal, household livelihood strategies tend to spread labour demand over the year.
For example, during the dry season, livestock absorbs considerable labour for watering and grazing, and off-farm work is emphasized. Attempts to increase the productive use of labour during the dry season include cultivation using residual moisture or irrigation; and the traditional response of short-season migration.
In parts of Southern Africa, for example, Botswana, where rainfall amounts and its dependability both between and within years tends to be unreliable, less effort is made to synchronize seasonal activities.United States is said to be having a mixed economy.
But however It does have some characteristics of a free market economy.
if u placed it in a economic system line showing command economy on one. Economic Systems is a refereed journal for the analysis of causes and consequences of the significant institutional variety prevailing among all developed, developing, emerging, and transition economies, as well as attempts at and proposals for their reform..
The journal is open to micro and macro contributions, theoretical as well as empirical, the latter to analyze related topics against the. Economic systems. There are two basic solutions to the economic problem as described by Paul Samuelson, namely free markets and central panning.
Free market economies. Markets enable mutually beneficial exchange between producers and consumers, and systems that rely on markets to solve the economic problem are called market economies.
The conceptual framework above is a convenient way of structuring the discussion on trends and constraints relating to current farming systems in the SATs.
MIXED FARMING systems, the largest category of livestock system in the world, cover about billion hectares of land, of which billion hectares are arable rainfed crop land, billion hectares are irrigated crop land and billion hectares are grassland. Mixed farming systems produce 92%. Reconstruction: Reconstruction, the period () after the American Civil War during which attempts were made to redress the inequities of slavery and its political, social, and economic legacy and to solve the problems arising from the readmission to the Union of the 11 states that had seceded.