Microfilms international distinguished dissertation

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Microfilms international distinguished dissertation

The 90, Saramaka some of whom live in neighboring French Guiana are one minority within this multi-ethnic nation, which includes approximately 27 per cent Hindustanis East Indian descendants of contract laborers brought in after the abolition of Microfilms international distinguished dissertation ; Since the s, they also live along the lower Suriname River in villages constructed by the colonial government and Alcoaa major aluminum company.

They were relocated to allow flooding of approximately half their tribal territory for a hydroelectric project built to supply electricity for an aluminum smelter. Today, about one-third of the Saramaka live in French Guiana, most having migrated there since after warfare in Suriname. The Ndyuka, Paramaka, and Aluku, in eastern Surinameas well as the several hundred Kwinti, speak variants of another creole language, Ndyuka.

Both languages are historically related to Sranan Tongothe creole language of coastal Suriname. About 50 percent of the Saramaccan lexicon derives from various West and Central African languages, 20 percent from English the language of the original colonists in Suriname20 percent from Portuguese the language of the overseers and slave masters on many Suriname plantationsand the remaining 10 percent from Amerindian languages and Dutch the latter were later colonists.

For nearly years, they fought from the rainforest for their independence. They were so feared that late 18th century maps showed the defensive fortifications in the European colony intended to protect against their raids.

The Saramaka have a keen interest in the history of their formative years; they preserve their very rich oral tradition. Innovative scholarly research since the late 20th century has brought together oral and archival accounts in new histories.

During the late s, a civil war between Maroons and the military government of Suriname caused considerable hardship to the Saramaka and other Maroons. By mid approximately 3, Saramaka and 8, Ndyuka were living as temporary refugees in French Guiana. Access to the outside world was severely restricted for many Saramaka in their homeland.

They did not consult the Saramaka authorities. United States Peace Corps volunteers lived and worked in Saramaka villages, and Brazilian gold-miners arrived on the Suriname river. Such economic activities as prostitution, casino gambling, and drug smuggling became major industries in coastal Suriname and accompanied the miners to the interior.

In addition, they were granted compensation from the government for damages caused by previous timber grants made to Chinese companies.

This was paid into a special development fund, which is now managed by the Saramaka. In contrast, the so-called transmigration villages, built to house the 6, Saramaka displaced by the hydroelectric project, range up to 2, people. They are laid out in a European-style grid patternused throughout larger South American cities.

Microfilms international distinguished dissertation

In many cases they have been located far from the riverside, making life difficult for the occupants. Horticultural campswhich include permanent houses and shrines, are located several hours by canoe from each village.

They are exploited by small groups of women related through matrilineal ties. Due to their matrilineal ties, many women have a house in their own birth village, another in their horticultural camp, and a third in their husband's village. Men divide their time among several different houses, built at various times for themselves and for their wives.

Traditional Saramaka houses are compact, wide enough to tie a hammock and not much longer from front to back; with walls of planks and woven palm frondsand traditionally roofs of thatch or, increasingly, of corrugated metal.

They do not have windows but often have elaborately carved facades. They use concrete as well as wood, and feature windows and more expansive floor plans. For more than two centuries, the economy has been based on full exploitation of the forest environment and on periodic work trips by men to the coast to bring back Western goods.

For subsistence, the Saramaka depend on shifting swidden horticulture done mostly by women, with hunting and fishing done by men, supplemented by the women gathering wild forest products, such as palm nuts.University microfilms international dissertations abstracts word essay on my life experience introduction for a research paper on the holocaust history (effect analysis essay) what is the purpose of a proposal essay?

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The abstract (page-numbered ii) provides a succinct summary of the work. To satisfy the requirements of the National Library and University Microfilms International, the abstract must be no longer than words for a Doctoral thesis and words for a Master's thesis.

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