It is counterproductive to withhold recess or replace it with classroom activities as a punishment. Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: Educating the Student Body: The National Academies Press.
ShareCompartir This website is archived for historical purposes and is no longer being maintained or updated. The benefits of physical activity have been extolled throughout western history, but it was not until the second half of this century that scientific evidence supporting these beliefs began to accumulate.
By the s, enough information was available about the beneficial effects of vigorous exercise on cardiorespiratory fitness that the American College of Sports Medicine ACSMthe American Heart Association AHAand other national organizations began issuing physical activity recommendations to the public.
These recommendations generally focused on cardiorespiratory endurance and specified sustained periods of vigorous physical activity involving large muscle groups and lasting at least 20 minutes on 3 or more days per week. As understanding of the benefits of less vigorous activity grew, recommendations followed suit.
The Healthy People goals for the nation's health have recognized the importance of physical activity and have included physical activity goals.
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans, the basis of the federal government's nutrition-related programs, included physical activity guidance to maintain and improve weight - 30 minutes or more of moderate-intensity physical activity on all, or most, days of the week.
Underpinning such recommendations is a growing understanding of how physical activity affects physiologic function. The body responds to physical activity in ways that have important positive effects on musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, respiratory, and endocrine systems.
These changes are consistent with a number of health benefits, including a reduced risk of premature mortality and reduced risks of coronary heart disease, hypertension, colon cancer, and diabetes mellitus. Regular participation in physical activity also appears to reduce depression and anxiety, improve mood, and enhance ability to perform daily tasks throughout the life span.
The risks associated with physical activity must also be considered. The most common health problems that have been associated with physical activity are musculoskeletal injuries, which can occur with excessive amounts of activity or with suddenly beginning an activity for which the body is not conditioned.
Much more serious associated health problems i.
Sedentary people, especially those with preexisting health conditions, who wish to increase their physical activity should therefore gradually build up to the desired level of activity. Even among people who are regularly active, the risk of myocardial infarction or sudden death is somewhat increased during physical exertion, but their overall risk of these outcomes is lower than that among people who are sedentary.
Research on physical activity continues to evolve. This report includes both well-established findings and newer research results that await replication and amplification.
Interest has been developing in ways to differentiate between the various characteristics of physical activity that improve health. It remains to be determined how the interrelated characteristics of amount, intensity, duration, frequency, type, and pattern of physical activity are related to specific health or disease outcomes.
Attention has been drawn recently to findings from three studies showing that cardiorespiratory fitness gains are similar when physical activity occurs in several short sessions e.
Although, strictly speaking, the health benefits of such intermittent activity have not yet been demonstrated, it is reasonable to expect them to be similar to those of continuous activity. Moreover, for people who are unable to set aside 30 minutes for physical activity, shorter episodes are clearly better than none.
Indeed, one study has shown greater adherence to a walking program among those walking several times per day than among those walking once per day, when the total amount of walking time was kept the same.
Despite common knowledge that exercise is healthful, more than 60 percent of American adults are not regularly active, and 25 percent of the adult population are not active at all. Moreover, although many people have enthusiastically embarked on vigorous exercise programs at one time or another, most do not sustain their participation.
Clearly, the processes of developing and maintaining healthier habits are as important to study as the health effects of these habits. The effort to understand how to promote more active lifestyles is of great importance to the health of this nation.
Although the study of physical activity determinants and interventions is at an early stage, effective programs to increase physical activity have been carried out in a variety of settings, such as schools, physicians' offices, and worksites.
Determining the most effective and cost-effective intervention approaches is a challenge for the future. Fortunately, the United States has skilled leadership and institutions to support efforts to encourage and assist Americans to become more physically active.
Schools, community agencies, parks, recreational facilities, and health clubs are available in most communities and can be more effectively used in these efforts.
School-based interventions for youth are particularly promising, not only for their potential scope - almost all young people between the ages of 6 and 16 years attend school - but also for their potential impact.School-age children need at least one hour of moderate to vigorous exercise daily, as well as several periods of physical activity of 15 minutes or more throughout the day, according to the National Association for Sports and Physical Education.
Jun 04, · A healthy diet can benefit your physical, mental and social well-being in powerful ways. While the specifics vary, such a diet tends to emphasize nutritious whole foods, such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts and fish.
However, there is also a growing body of knowledge that substantiates that physical activity also improves psychological well-being.
This article will highlight a more recent review article on the effects of physical activity and mental health variables such as depression, anxiety, stress, mood state, and self-esteem (Summary in Table 1).
It is important to try to balance the energy being used for physical activity with energy going into your body (as food and drink).
This will help you to maintain a healthy weight and will help to keep your body working well. Healthy thyroid function depends on keeping blood sugar in a normal range, and keeping blood sugar in a normal range depends on healthy thyroid function.
*BODY COMPOSITION: Sustain continuous movement for increasing periods of time while participating in moderate to vigorous physical activity; Differentiate the body's ability to consume calories and burn fat during periods of inactivity and during long periods of moderate physical activity.