Comparison between industrial and manufacturing engineering

For convenience, Mechanical Engineering courses are listed below. Not offered during this academic year. Students will be exposed to several mature and emerging technologies through a series of case studies.

Comparison between industrial and manufacturing engineering

However, practical experience has shown that under normal service conditions the SF6 interrupter never requires servicing throughout its lifetime. The operating mechanisms of all types of circuit-breakers require servicing, some more frequently than others depending mainly on the amount of energy they have to provide.

For the vacuum-circuit breaker the service interval lies between 10, and 20, operations. For the SF6 designs the value varies between 5, and 20, whereby, the lower value applies to the puffer circuit-breaker for whose operation, the mechanism must deliver much more energy.

The actual maintenance requirements of the circuit-breaker depend upon its service duty, i. Therefore, the need for the repair or replacement of an interrupter will be a rare exception and in this sense these circuit-breakers can be considered maintenance-free.

Service or maintenance requirements are therefore restricted to routine cleaning of external surfaces and the checking and lubrication of the mechanism, including the trip-linkages and auxiliary switches. In applications which require a very high number of circuit-breaker operations e.

In such cases it is to be recommended that the estimation of circuit-breaker maintenance costs be given some consideration and that these be included in the evaluation along with the initial, capital costs. Reliability In practice, an aspect of the utmost importance in the choice of a circuit-breaker is reliability.

The reliability of a piece of equipment is defined by its mean time to failure MTFi. Today, the SF6 and vacuum circuit-breakers made use of the same operating mechanisms, so in this regard they can be considered identical. However, in relation to their interrupters the two circuit breakers exhibit a marked difference.

The number of moving parts is higher for the SF6 circuit-breaker than that for the vacuum unit. However, a reliability comparison of the two technologies on the basis of an analysis of the number of components are completely different in regards design, material and function due to the different media.

Reliability is dependent upon far too many factors, amongst others, dimensioning, design, base material, manufacturing methods, testing and quality control procedures, that it can be so simply analyzed.

In the meantime, sufficient service experience is available for both types of circuit-breakers to allow a valid practical comparison to be made. A review of the available data on failure rates confirms that there is no discernible difference in reliability between the two circuit-breaker types.

More over, the data shows that both technologies exhibit a very high degree of reliability under normal and abnormal conditions. Switching of fault currents Today, all circuit-breakers from reputable manufacturers are designed and type-tested in conformance with recognized national or international standards IEC This provides the assurance that these circuit-breakers will reliably interrupt all fault currents up to their maximum rating.

Further, both types of circuit-breakers are basically capable of interrupting currents with high DC components; such currents can arise when short circuits occur close to a generator.

Corresponding tests have indeed shown that individual circuit-breakers of both types are in fact, capable of interrupting fault currents with missing current zeros i. Where such application is envisaged, it is always to be recommended that the manufacturer be contacted and given the information needed for a professional opinion.

As regards the recovery voltage which appears after the interruption of a fault current the vacuum-circuit breaker can, in general, handle voltages with RRV values of up to 5KV. SF6 circuit-breakers are more limited, the values being in the range from 1 to 2 KV.

In individual applications, e. Switching small inductive currents The term, small inductive currents is here defined as those small values of almost pure inductive currents, such as occur with unloaded transformers, motor during the starting phase or running unloaded and reactor coils.

When considering the behavior of a circuit-breaker interrupting such currents, it is necessary to distinguish between high frequency and medium frequency transient phenomena.

Medium frequency transients arise from, amongst other causes, the interruption of a current before it reaches its natural zero. All circuit-breakers can, when switching currents of the order of a few hundred amperes and, due to instability in the arc, chop the current immediately prior to a current zero.

This phenomenon is termed real current chopping. When it occurs, the energy stored in the load side inductances oscillates through the system line to earth capacitances winding and cable capacitances and causes an increase in the voltage.

This amplitude of the resulting over voltage is a function of the value of the current chopped. The smaller the chopped current, the lower the value of the over voltage.

In addition to the type of circuit — breaker, the system parameters at the point of installation are factors which determine the height of the chopping current, in particular the system capacitance parallel to the circuit breaker is of importance. The chopping current of SF6 circuit-breakers is essentially determined by the type of circuit-breaker.

The value of chopping current varies from 0.Implementation of Lean Manufacturing Tools in Garment Manufacturing Process Focusing Sewing Section of Men’s Shirt Naresh Paneru Master’s thesis. 5) Worm Gear - Worm gears are used to transmit power at 90° and where high reductions are required.

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Comparison between industrial and manufacturing engineering

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Industrial Engineer, Manufacturing engineer and Industrial engineering