But not everything expressed in words—even when organized and written down—is counted as literature. Those writings that are primarily informative—technical, scholarly, journalistic—would be excluded from the rank of literature by most, though not all, critics.
For a suitable donation, a question could be put to the Pythia and an answer obtained from Apollo. Since the words of the Pythia were hard to understand, the priests attending her wrote up the answer in verse and delivered it to the petitioner.
The answers were legendarily obscure or ambiguous -- the source of the modern of meaning of "oracular," which is precisely to be obscure or ambiguous. One example of the kinds of answers Delphi gave occurred when King Croesus of Lydiaof legendary wealth, sought advice on the attack against Persia he was contemplating.
Cyrus the Great had just overthrown the Medesinand Croesus figured that this must reveal the weakness of the Median state, and that, in any case, Cyrus' new realm was bound to be disorganized for a while, giving the Lydians an opportunity to renew the war that had ended in But he was a cautious ruler, and sent a question to Delphi, asking what would happen if he attacked the Persians.
This is a revealing episode, since Croesus wasn't even a Greek. Delphi already had such a reputation. The answer that the Pythia delivered was that if Croesus attacked Cyrus, "a great kingdom will fall.
He had no idea who he was dealing with, and was defeated very swiftly indeed.
Lydia became part of Persia in But Cyrus didn't kill, torture, or imprison Croesus. The former king was sent home to live in retirement, where he had the leisure to write back to Delphi and complain that he had been misled.
The priests answered his letter, telling him that what they had said was perfectly accurate. A great kingdom had indeed fallen, namely his. Croesus might have worried which kingdom the god had referred to. Another example came when the Persians invaded Greece in King Xerxes wished to avenge the defeat of his father, Darius, at the battle of Marathon in I had a student once who worked at the "Phidippides Sports Center," a sports supply store in Encino, California.
This was named after the messenger who is supposed to have run back to Athens to report the defeat of the Persians. Unfortunately, Phidippides dropped dead once he had blurted out, "Victory is ours.
The distance of a Marathon run is As it happens, the distance from Marathon to Athens is more like 19 miles 30 km. We get the difference because the distance for the event was determined inwhen the Olympics were in London, and the run was from Windsor Castle to London's Olympic Stadium.
So Phidippides didn't run nearly as far as a Marathon. Indeed, Phidippides may not have done the run at all. He or "Philippides" is mentioned by Herodotus as running to Sparta from Athens before the battle to ask for helpbut there is no account of the run from Marathon for many centuries.
And when Plutarch relates the story, he doesn't mention Phidippides. Others fled the city. Unfortunately, after the Persians had flanked and eliminated the Spartans atThermopylae "Hot gates," i. Athens, however, had just built a new fleet, under the command of Themistocles.
He figured that the "walls of wood" meant the ships and that he should try and bring the Persians to action.
He drew them into an attack in the narrow waters between the island of Salamis where most Athenians had fled and the mainland. Here the large Persian fleet could not deploy to advantage, and the Athenians started getting the better of the fight. Since most of the Persian fleet consisted of Phoenicians and Egyptians, who didn't want to be there anyway, they began to flee.
Xerxes, observing from a headland, was apoplectic. Now, without a dangerous and humiliating march overland, his army was stranded in Greece, short of supplies.
The Greeks allowed for the attrition of a whole year, and then the Spartans attacked and destroyed the remaining Persian force at Plataea, in Themistocles had interpreted the Oracle correctly.Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years.
We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state. Taste, criticism, and judgment All aesthetic experience, whether of art or nature, seems to be informed by and dependent upon an exercise of taste. We choose the object of aesthetic experience, and often do so carefully and deliberately.
Moreover, we are judged by our choices, not only of works of art but also of colour schemes, dresses, and garden ornaments, just as we are judged by our. I’m guessing you meant to write: “I am a pro-choice atheist.
When I lived in Ireland, one of my friends was a pro-life Christian.” instead of. From the 19th century onwards, art criticism became a more common vocation and even a profession, developing at times formalised methods based on particular aesthetic theories.
In France, a rift emerged in the s between the proponents of traditional neo-classical forms of art and the new romantic fashion. The Neoclassicists, under Étienne-Jean Delécluze defended the classical .
The lord whose oracle is in Delphi neither speaks nor conceals but gives a sign. Heraclitus of Ephesus, quoted by Plutarch, De Pythiae oraculis 21, E, The Presocratic Philosophers, G.S.
Kirk & J.E. Raven, Cambridge, , p Unless Plato had already written some short dialogues to illustrate Socrates' technique of questioning (like the Euthyphro), the Apology .
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