Visit Website Did you know? In18 percent of all American workers were under the age of The educational reformers of the mid-nineteenth century convinced many among the native-born population that primary school education was a necessity for both personal fulfillment and the advancement of the nation.
In the early 19th century when children worked in textile factories they often worked for more than 12 hours a day. In the early 19th century parliament passed laws to curtail child labor.
However they all proved to be unenforceable. The first effective law was passed in It was effective because for the first time factory inspectors were appointed to make sure the law was being obeyed. The new law banned children under 9 from working in textile factories.
It said that children aged 9 to 13 must not work for more than 12 hours a day or 48 hours a week. Children aged 13 to 18 must not work for more than 69 hours a week. Furthermore nobody under 18 was allowed to work at night from 8. Children aged 9 to 13 were to be given 2 hours education a day.
Conditions in coal mines were also terrible. Children as young as 5 worked underground. In a law banned children under 10 and all females from working underground. In a law banned all children under 8 from working.
Then in a Factory Act said that women and children could only work 10 hours a day in textile factories. In the law was extended to all factories.
A factory was defined as a place where more than 50 people were employed in a manufacturing process. In the 19th century boys were made to climb up chimneys to clean them. This barbaric practice was ended by law in Gradually children were protected by the law more and more.
In the 19th century families were much larger than today. That was partly because infant mortality was high. People had many children and accepted that not all of them would survive. In the early 19th century the churches provided schools for poor children.
From the government provided them with grants. There were also dame schools. They were run by women who taught a little reading, writing and arithmetic. However many dame schools were really a child minding service.
The state did not take responsibility for education until Forsters Education Act laid down that schools should be provided for all children. If there were not enough places in existing schools then board schools were built.
In school was made compulsory for 5 to 10 year olds. However school was not free, except for the poorest children until when fees were abolished. From children were required to go to school until they were Girls from upper class families were taught by a governess.
Boys were often sent to public schools like Eton. Middle class boys went to grammar schools. Discipline in Victorian schools was savage.
Beatings were common although in the 19th century the cane generally replaced the birch. Before the 19th century children were always dressed like little adults. In Victorian times the first clothes made especially for children appeared such as sailor suits.
In the 19th century middle class girls played with wood or porcelain dolls.
They also had dolls houses, model shops and skipping ropes. Boys played with marbles and toy soldiers as well as toy trains. Some toy trains had working engines fueled by methylated spirits.The campaign against child labour culminated in two important pieces of legislation – the Factory Act () and the Mines Act ().
The Factory Act prohibited the employment of children younger than nine years of age and limited the hours that children between nine and 13 could work. Child Labor and England’s Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution in nineteenth-century England brought about many changes in British society.
It was the advent of faster means of production, growing wealth for the Nation and a surplus of new jobs for thousands of people living in poverty.
It began with the New England colonists, who brought the practice of child labor with them from England. Use of child labor regardless of the age or frailty of the child was common throughout the colonies, and remained common after independence – including in the southern U.S., where the black slaves' children were ordered to work along with their captive parents.
Throughout the second half of the 19th century, child labour began to decline in industrialised societies due to regulation and economic factors because of the Growth of Trade Unions. The regulation of child labour began from the earliest days of the Industrial revolution.
The first act to regulate child labour in Britain was passed in Child labour During the 19th century working-class children were often employed in factories and on farms. For many families, it was more important for a child to bring home a . Read the essential details about Child Labour.
Links to content and primary sources covering Life in the Factory, Factory Reformers, Supporters of Child Labour, Biographies of Facrory Workers, Factory Acts and Statistics.